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24 April 2014

Most VVI SQL Server Interview Questions and Answered for Fresher and Experienced - DotNet Brother

What is difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE commands?

Delete command removes the rows from a table based on the condition that we provide with a WHERE clause. Truncate will actually remove all the rows from a table and there will be no data in the table after we run the truncate command. 


  1. TRUNCATE is faster and uses fewer system and transaction log resources than DELETE.
  2. TRUNCATE removes the data by deallocating the data pages used to store the table's data, and only the page deallocations are recorded in the transaction log.
  3. TRUNCATE removes all rows from a table, but the table structure, its columns, constraints, indexes and so on, remains. The counter used by an identity for new rows is reset to the seed for the column.
  4. You cannot use TRUNCATE TABLE on a table referenced by a FOREIGN KEY constraint. Because TRUNCATE TABLE is not logged, it cannot activate a trigger.
  5. TRUNCATE cannot be rolled back.
  6. TRUNCATE is DDL Command.
  7. TRUNCATE Resets identity of the table


  1. DELETE removes rows one at a time and records an entry in the transaction log for each deleted row.
  2. If you want to retain the identity counter, use DELETE instead. If you want to remove table definition and its data, use the DROP TABLE statement.
  3. DELETE Can be used with or without a WHERE clause
  4. DELETE Activates Triggers.
  5. DELETE can be rolled back.
  6. DELETE is DML Command.
  7. DELETE does not reset identity of the table.
Note: DELETE and TRUNCATE both can be rolled back when surrounded by TRANSACTION if the current session is not closed. If TRUNCATE is written in Query Editor surrounded by TRANSACTION and if session is closed, it can not be rolled back but DELETE can be rolled back.

What's the difference between a primary key and a unique key?

Primary key and Unique key enforces uniqueness of the column on which they are defined.The different between primary key and unique are  below.

  1. Primary Key can't accept null values but where as unique key can accept null value.
  2. By default, Primary key is clustered index but By default, Unique key is a unique non-clustered index.
  3. We can have only one Primary key in a table where as we can have more than one unique key in table.

What is View ? 

A MS SQL Server 2008 view can be thought of as a stored query accessible as a virtual table. It can be used for retrieving data as well as updating or deleting rows. Views in MS SQL Server provide a preset way to view data from one or more tables. They may also include aggregate fields (e.g., COUNT, SUM). Views allow your users to query a single object which behaves like a table and contains the needed joins and fields you have specified. In this way, a simple query (SELECT * FROM ViewName) can produce a more refined result which can serve as a report and answer business questions.

Rows updated or deleted in the MS SQL Server 2008  view are updated or deleted in the table the view was created with. It should also be noted that as data in the original table changes, so does the data in the view-as views are the way to look at parts of the original table. The results of using a view are not permanently stored in the database. The data accessed through a view is actually constructed using a standard T-SQL select command and can come from one to many different base tables or even other views. 

Two main purposes of creating a MS SQL Server 2008 view are
1.) provide a security mechanism which restricts users to a certain subset of data
2.)provide a mechanism for developers to customize how users can logically view the data.

What are Triggers and what are their types ?

A trigger defines a set of actions that are performed in response to an insert, update, or delete operation on a specified table. When such an SQL operation is executed, the trigger is said to have been activated. Triggers are optional and are defined using the CREATE TRIGGER statement.

Triggers can be used, along with referential constraints and check constraints, to enforce data integrity rules. Triggers can also be used to cause updates to other tables, automatically generate or transform values for inserted or updated rows, or invoke functions to perform tasks such as issuing alerts.

Further triggers divided into two parts 
  1. Data Manipulation Language (DML) and
  2. Data Definition Language (DDL) events.
The benefits derived from triggers is based in their events driven nature. Once created, the trigger automatically fires without user intervention based on an event in the database.

A) Using DML Triggers: 

DML triggers are invoked when any DML commands like INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE happen on the data of a table and or view.

Points to remember:
  1. DML triggers are powerful objects for maintaining database integrity and consistency.
  2. DML triggers evaluate data before it has been committed to the database.
  3. During this evaluation following actions are performed.
    • Compare before and after versions of data
    • Roll back invalid modification
    • Read from other tables ,those in other database
    • Modify other tables, including those in other database.
    • Execute local and remote stored procedures.
  4. We cannot use following commands in DML trigger
  5. Using the sys.triggers catalog view is a good way to list all the triggers in a database. To use it, we simply open a new query editor window in SSMS and select all the rows from the view as shown below;
    select * from sys.triggers
So let us create DML trigger.

You can create and manage triggers in SQL Server Management Studio or directly via Transact-SQL (T-SQL) statements.

1) Using AFTER triggers:
  • An AFTER trigger is the original mechanism that SQL Server created to provide an automated response to data modifications
  • AFTER triggers fire after the data modification statement completes but before the statement's work is committed to the databases.
  • The trigger has the capability to roll back its actions as well as the actions of the modification statement that invoked it.
For all examples shared below I have used Pubs database. You can download its msi file from here and then attach .mdf file in your SQL Sever 2008.

UPDATE StatementUPDATE authorsSET au_fname = au_fnameWHERE state ='UT'


(2 row(s) affected)

Point to remember:
1) If we have a constraint and trigger defined on the same column, any violations to the constraint abort the statement and the trigger execution does not occur. For example, if we have a foreign key constraint on a table that ensures referential integrity and a trigger that that does some validation on that same foreign key column then the trigger validation will only execute if the foreign key validation is successful.

Can we create more than one trigger on one table?
  • We can create more than one trigger on a table for each data modification action. In other words, we can have multiple triggers responding to an INSERT, an UPDATE, or a DELETE command.
  • The sp_settriggerorder procedure is the tool we use to set the trigger order. This procedure takes the trigger name, order value (FIRST, LAST, or NONE), and action (INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE) as parameters.
    sp_settriggerorder tr_au_upd, FIRST, 'UPDATE'
  • AFTER triggers can only be placed on tables, not on views.
  • A single AFTER trigger cannot be placed on more than one table.
  • The text, ntext, and image columns cannot be referenced in the AFTER trigger logic.
How to see inserted and deleted rows through Trigger:
  • We can find rows modified in the inserted and deleted temporary tables.
  • For AFTER trigger, these temporary memories รข€“resident tables contains the rows modified by the statement.
  • With the INSTEAD OF trigger, the inserted and deleted tables are actually temporary tables created on-the-fly.
Lets us try and see how this works;
a) Create a table titles_copy

SELECT *INTO titles_copyFROM titlesGO
b) Create a trigger on this table
 'Inserted'SELECT title_id, type, price FROM inserted -- THIS IS TEMPORARY TABLEPRINT 'Deleted'SELECT title_id, type, price FROM deleted -- THIS IS TEMPORARY TABLE--ROLLBACK TRANSACTION

c) Let us UPDATE rows. After which trigger will get fired.

We have written two statements in trigger, so these rows get printed. The inserted and deleted tables are available within the trigger after INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

PRINT 'Inserted'SELECT title_id, type, price FROM inserted -- THIS IS TEMPORARY TABLEPRINT 'Deleted'SELECT title_id, type, price FROM deleted -- THIS IS TEMPORARY TABLE

Result is based on below rule.

Statement   Contents of inserted      Contents of deleted
INSERT         Rows added                     Empty
UPDATE        New rows                        Old rows
DELETE         Empty                             Rows deleted

2) INSTEAD OF Trigger:
  1. Provides an alternative to the AFTER trigger that was heavily utilized in prior versions of SQL Server.
  2. It performs its actions instead of the action that fired it.
  3. This is much different from the AFTER trigger, which performs its actions after the statement that caused it to fire has completed. This means you can have an INSTEAD OF update trigger on a table that successfully completes but does not include the actual update to the table.
  4. INSTEAD OF Triggers fire instead of the operation that fires the trigger, so if you define an INSTEAD OF trigger on a table for the Delete operation, they try to delete rows, they will not actually get deleted (unless you issue another delete instruction from within the trigger) as in below example:
Let us create INSTEAD OF trigger.if exists (select * from sysobjects where id = object_id('dbo.cust_upd_orders')and sysstat & 0xf = 8)drop trigger dbo.cust_upd_ordersgo

Let us write an UPDATE statement now;
UPDATE authorsSET au_fname = 'Rachael'WHERE state = 'UT'
TRIGGER OUTPUT: 2 rows were updated.

(2 row(s) affected)

Let us see what has been updatded
SELECT au_fname, au_lname FROM authorsWHERE state = 'UT'

au_fname au_lname
Anne Ringer
Albert Ringer

Lets see another example;

Create a Table
CREATE TABLE Pankaj (Name  varchar(32))GO

Create trigger with INSTEAD.
CREATE TRIGGER tr_pankaj ON PankajINSTEAD OF DELETEAS    PRINT 'Sorry - you cannot delete this data'GO

INSERT into pankaj table
INSERT pankaj
    SELECT 'Cannot' union    SELECT 'Delete' union    SELECT 'Me'

Run the SQL DELETE statement.

Sorry - you cannot delete this data

(3 row(s) affected)

Run SELECT statement
Result is below;


Points to remember:
  1. As you can see from the results of the SELECT statement, the first name (au_fname) column is not updated to 'Rachael'. The UPDATE statement is correct, but the INSTEAD OF trigger logic does not apply the update from the statement as part of its INSTEAD OF action. The
    only action the trigger carries out is to print its message.
  2. The important point to realize is that after you define an INSTEAD OF trigger on a table, you need to include all the logic in the trigger to perform the actual modification as well as any other actions that the trigger might need to carry out.
  3. Triggering action-The INSTEAD OF trigger fires instead of the triggering action. As shown earlier, the actions of the INSTEAD OF trigger replace the actions of the original data modification that fired the trigger.
  4. Constraint processing-Constraint processing-including CHECK constraints, UNIQUE constraints, and PRIMARY KEY constraints-happens after the INSTEAD OF trigger fires.
  5. If you were to print out the contents of the inserted and deleted tables from inside an Instead Of trigger, you would see they behave in exactly the same way as normal. In this case, the deleted table holds the rows you were trying to delete, even though they will not get deleted.
Benefits of INSTEAD Triggers:
  • We can define an INSTEAD OF trigger on a view (something that will not work with AFTER triggers) and this is the basis of the Distributed Partitioned Views that are used so split data across a cluster of SQL Servers.
  • We can use INSTEAD OF triggers to simplify the process of updating multiple tables for application developers.
  • Mixing Trigger Types.
B) Using DDL Triggers:
  1. These triggers focus on changes to the definition of database objects as opposed to changes to the actual data.
  2. This type of trigger is useful for controlling development and production database environments.
Let us create DDL trigger now;

Below is the syntax.

CREATE TRIGGER trigger_name
[ WITH <ddl_trigger_option> [ ,...n ] ]
{ FOR | AFTER } { event_type | event_group } [ ,...n ]
AS { sql_statement [ ; ] [ ...n ] | EXTERNAL NAME < method specifier > [ ; ] }

CREATE TRIGGER tr_TableAuditON DATABASEFOR CREATE_TABLE,ALTER_TABLE,DROP_TABLEAS      PRINT 'You must disable the TableAudit trigger in order              to change any table in this database'    ROLLBACKGO
Other way of writing the same query in more optimized way is below;
IF EXISTS(SELECT * FROM sys.triggers WHERE name = N'tr_TableAudit' AND parent_class=0)DROP TRIGGER [tr_TableAudit] ON DATABASEGO
 TRIGGER tr_TableAudit ON DATABASEFOR DDL_TABLE_EVENTSAS      PRINT 'You must disable the TableAudit trigger in               order to change any table in this database'           

Let us try to run a DDL command. See the result in below figure

Now let us look at an example that applies to server-level events. Above example was scoped at database level.

Let us create a trigger which prevents changes to the server logins. When this trigger is installed, it displays a message and rolls back any login changes that are attempted.
CREATE TRIGGER tr_LoginAuditON ALL SERVERFOR CREATE_LOGIN,ALTER_LOGIN,DROP_LOGINAS      PRINT'You must disable the tr_LoginAudit trigger before making login changes'      ROLLBACKGO

C) Using CLR Trigger:
  1. CLR triggers are trigger based on CLR.
  2. CLR integration is new in SQL Server 2008. It allows for the database objects (such as trigger) to be coded in .NET.
  3. Object that have heavy computation or require reference to object outside SQL are coded in the CLR.
  4. We can code both DDL and DML triggers by using a supported CLR language like C#.
Let us follow below simple steps to create a CLR trigger;

Step 1: Create the CLR class. We code the CLR class module with reference to the namespace required to compile CLR database objects.

Add below reference;

using Microsoft.SqlServer.Server;
using System.Data.SqlTypes;

So below is the complete code for class;
using System;using System.Collections.Generic;using System.Linq;using System.Text;using System.Data.Sql;using System.Data.SqlClient;using Microsoft.SqlServer.Server;using System.Data.SqlTypes;using System.Text.RegularExpressions;
namespace CLRTrigger
    public class CLRTrigger    {
        public static void showinserted()
            SqlTriggerContext triggContext = SqlContext.TriggerContext;
            SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(" context connection =true ");
            SqlCommand sqlComm = conn.CreateCommand();
            SqlPipe sqlP = SqlContext.Pipe;
            SqlDataReader dr;
            sqlComm.CommandText = "SELECT pub_id, pub_name from inserted";
            dr = sqlComm.ExecuteReader();
            while (dr.Read())
                sqlP.Send((string)dr[0] + "," + (string)dr[1]);

Step 2: Compile this class and in the BIN folder of project we will get CLRTrigger.dll generated. After compiling for CLRTrigger.dll, we need to load the assembly into SQL Server

Step 3: Now we will use T-SQL command to execute to create the assembly for CLRTrigger.dll. For that we will use CREATE ASSEMBLY in SQL Server.

Step 4: The final step is to create the trigger that references the assembly. Now we will write below T-SQL commands to add a trigger on the publishers table in the Pubs database.
CREATE TRIGGER tri_Publishes_clrON publishersFOR INSERTAS       EXTERNAL NAME triggertest.CLRTrigger.showinserted

If you get some compatibility error message run the below command to set compatibility.

Step 5: Enable CLR Stored procedure on SQL Server. For this run the below code;
EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options' , '1'; reconfigure;
EXEC sp_configure 'clr enabled' , '1' ;reconfigure;
EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options' , '0'; reconfigure;

Step 6: Now we will run INSERT statement to the publishers table that fires the newly created CLR trigger.
INSERT publishers(pub_id, pub_name)values ('9922','Pankaj Tiwari')

The trigger simply echoes the contents of the inserted table. The output from the trigger is based on the insertion above. 

9922,Pankaj Tiwari

(1 row(s) affected)

The line of code which is printing the query result is actually below code written in a managed environment.
while (dr.Read())
sqlP.Send((string)dr[0] + "," + (string)dr[1]);

 Note:-The tri_Publishes_clr trigger demonstrates the basic steps for creating a CLR trigger. The true power of CLR triggers lies in performing more complex calculations, string manipulations and things of this nature that the can be done much more efficiently with CLR programming languages than they can in T-SQL.

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